In 5-6 Vwo The Netherlands students are being prepared to go to University.

There they need to be able to read, listen, view, write and speak critically at all information.

Therefore it is necessary for teachers to focus on critical skills in English as a language of international science communication.

Especially as more and more studies are in English, and most of the scientific scholary literature was and is written in English anyway.

Dutch schools have started Pre-Academic Courses, see .

Also see

AnalyticAlpha anticipates these trends by having set up “Project Futurables” at the crossroads of Literature (Art), Science & Technology for students year 5 Vwo at CEFR-level B2 –> C1.

This age group compares to K-11 US / Year 9 Australia / A-level English pre-exam year UK.