Big6 #1 Task Definition
1.1 What is the topic we have chosen for our presentation? (Be specific): ________________________________________________________________
1.2 Define the problem(s) (Be specific) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
What types of information do we have / need?
List questions you have about your topic to help narrow your topic. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
Using the information you already have, come up with an inquiry question and ask your teacher to approve your inquiry question. Approved by teacher? YES / NO
Big6 #2 Information Seeking Strategies
Choose 5 sources: either choose from the sources below or add your own. Reference them clearly. Make Dot and Jot notes. Surf the information and Summarise in bullet points. List your source and your 5 quotations from each source like this example:
Source 1 Reference: …
5 quotations from source 1:
Scrum Sources Booklet
S1 DATA SCIENCE
Why is big data big business?
Is every person a potential data point?
Which basic statistics does everybody need to know to follow data science in our futures?
What will our growing ability to obtain novel forms of big data allow us to do or achieve or make possible or predict in the future?
The Qualified life is here, but who will make sense of it?
How can we make sure all students (all world citizens) can define, conceptualize, distiguish, explain, put into practice, and use the DIKW hierarchy (Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom)?
S2 Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Machine Learning – how will we learn in the EduTech Future?
Can we build AI without losing control over it?
Will we worship artificial intelligence in the future?
Will we end up subservient to super-intelligent machines?
Will we have The Church of the Singularity?
The advancements that have been made with Siri and Cortana are cute, but we want true AI that can actually infer like a human being and learn independently. A machine that can act like a sentient human would have huge implications across all kinds of industries. Suppose this new robotic friend actually develops. What will this robotic friend be like? What will it do for us, and why will it do that?
Google Brain, a vast computer simulation of the human brain, a “neural network” of thousands of connected computer processors — “Deep Learning” this is called.
Our Post-Human Future
AlphaGo is not a system based on brute-force analysis. It has achieved it’s level of play through machine learning, and deep neural networks. After an initial period of being given feedback by human supervisors as to the validity of move suggestions, AlphaGo was eventually let loose on databases containing millions of professional games—teaching itself through evaluations and comparisons the way human professionals play the game of Go. What was astounding, however (and a great surprise to a great many, yours truly included), was that not only did AlphaGo display a level of play on par with human professionals, it several times throughout the match came up with what commentators and other Go professionals alike could only describe as “creative moves”, moves that stumped not only Lee Sedol, but even AlphaGo’s own creators. Moves and sequences invented (yes, why not?) by AlphaGo during those five games have since been put to further use by, among others, Sedol himself.
S3 Deep Fake News
How do you follow the news, and to what degree is the way the news is presented to you biased? Media Bias Fact Check Website
Do you feel that “Wikipedia” References are useful sources of information for your research activity on a topic?
What knowledge and skills does a 17-year old student need in order to be able to distinguish fake news from real news?
Why is media bias increasing rapidly?
Which Dutch media sources have minimal bias and use very few loaded words? Loaded words is wording that attempts to influence an audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes. The reporting is factual and usually sourced. Could you add the most credible Dutch media sources to this list? Which are they, and how do you know?
Watch the video below and answer the question that follows. This video was uploaded by YouTube user Larry O’Connor on July 18, 2010. The video shows parts of a forty-five-minute speech Shirley Sherrod delivered in March 2010. At the time of the speech, Sherrod was Georgia State Director of Rural Development for the United States Department of Agriculture. This video claims that Sherrod discriminated against a farmer due to his race. Why might you not trust this video? NAACP Bigotry in their ranks
1984 Ministry of Truth
Propaganda is another major theme of 1984. The novel clearly shows the way propaganda is used to control people, along with its impacts and pitfalls. Orwell has presented this theme through an organized propaganda machine of the Ministry of Truth in Oceania. Winston Smith is also involved in this propaganda. His work requires distortion of facts and truths and altering historical facts and then propagate them throughout the country. It means that the Party wants to have complete control over the thoughts and actions of the public. This propaganda has also invented new information and new words such as ‘Two Minutes Hate’, ‘Big Brother is watching’ and new mottos. The objective of propaganda is to make people loyal to the Party and the country.
Subversion of Reality
Subversion of reality is another major theme of this novel. The novel has presented most people living in abject poverty, while others are engaged in working against each other. The children are spying on the adults with what they have learned in “Spies” groups. Winston Smith has been taught not to enjoy a life of love and sex in romance. The language is turned topsy-turvy to make people believe in what they do not know. The facts are turned into lies, and then these lies are disseminated as truths. The public memory is being manipulated with new information that further alienate the people from reality.
Controlled Information and Rewriting of History
In the state of Oceania, there is a single party system where only the Party rules with its leader, Big Brother. It broadcasts, manages and distributes information and control the people. Though the information is taken from history, it is rewritten to suit the current occasion. Even Winston Smith has a hard time, thinking why the diary writing is punishable. The people are becoming unsure, and then sure that they are members of a great government, the Party. O’ Brien also harbors the same notions due to the subversion of information and rewriting of the history.
Use and Abuse of Language
Language is very important for mental and physical control. The Party has employed language to control the masses. The use of words such as Newspeak, doublethink, Ingsoc and various other words speak volumes about this tactic. O’Brien and Winston Smith are engaged in the Ministry of Truth to use and abuse language to rewrite history and distort facts for the public consumption.
In George Orwell’s novel 1984, the author introduces this phrase as,
“War is Peace / Freedom is Slavery / Ignorance is Strength”
Ignorance, the true condition of the masses, is beneficial for the government, as it would keep the people optimistic, happy, and satisfied at their lot. Their ignorance gives strength to the Party. However, if they see the reality of how they are manipulated, then it would instigate them to rebel – to take the power of the Party into their own hands.
S4 Digital Lifestyle & Footprint
Will a robot raise your child?
How do we want others to see us?
How much of our lives do we want to open up to biotechnological and medical improvements? As a society, do we understand the consequences and risks of these new technologies? And how do new technologies change our perception of a good and healthy lifestyle and the limits of life itself?
What will your Digital Legacy be? What data should Humanity 2.0 save and what data should be deleted? Is digital curation of Memories a good idea?
How should we be raising Digital Citizens?
How can you claim your domain and own your online presence?
Are we slowly becoming Digital Zombies?
Do you show balanced digital behaviour?
- How can I stop being afraid of missing out?
- How much technology is too much?
- How can I unplug, but at the same time not lose the connection with my social circle?
- How can I have a balanced use of technology in my life?
TEXTS + PICTURES
Book “Homo Distractus’: https://www.consciously-digital.com/book.html
Videos and podcasts
http://tidepodcast.org/: episode 118 Raising Digital Citizens
S5 Talking to Robots
How long until robots rule the world?
With Yamaha’s vocaloid software Hatsune Miku, imitation is no longer merely a question of mimicking intellectual capabilities. The 3D-animated, 16-year-old pop star with her computer-generated voice has had a massive cultural impact: She performs live concerts and according to Crypton, her voice is featured in over 100,000 released songs.
Mixed media installation and performance, mechanics, skeletal parts, SpiNNaker board, 13 min dialogue.
Two robots with uncanny humanoid faces and strange skeletal bodies sit in a room, discussing a disturbing dream. As a visitor enters the room, the robots respond by moving their eyes, then turning their heads and speaking, as if an intruder has interrupted their conversation. We get the distinct impression that we are unwelcome, as the robots request that we “please be quiet” and turn back to their private conversation.
This artistic representation of the posthuman is from the 1999 film The Matrix by the Watchowskis – a post-apocalyptic vision in which intelligent machines control most of humanity, keeping their minds engaged in a computer simulation of the world anno 1999 whilst harvesting their bodies’ bioelectricity for power (an interesting metaphor for the way that digital appliances hog our attention these days). In the film, a small group of people, led by Morpheus, “hacks” the computer system into which the population is plugged, recruiting rebels for the war against the machines. The rebels must sever their physical connections to the machines – the cables we see protruding from a character’s neck here – and cultivate the mental power to warp the machine simulation that most people think of as reality.
Previously a trope of science fiction, a scenario in which humanity is controlled and dominated by artificial intelligence (AI) is now considered likely by several contemporary scientists, among them Stephen Hawking (http://observer.com/2015/08/stephen-hawking-elon-musk-and-bill-gates-warn-about-artificial-intelligence/ It even worries transhumanist founder Nick Bostrom. Watch:
While The Matrix draws on the idea – going back at least to Plato’s cave metaphor – that what we think of as reality is but a sensory illusion, what is at issue here is also an ethical dilemma: when we create self-governing, self-evolving machines, at which point will we be forced to grant these machines ethical rights and responsibilities?
In any case, it seems no longer to be the case that robots will only do what they are programmed to do. In an experiment in Lausanne, robots learned, in 500 generations, how to “lie” to each other in order to hog a resource they were programmed to share. http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2009-08/evolving-robots-learn-lie-hide-resources-each-other
Watch the trailer to Westworld HBO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vb7r9m-DYpU
Hbo has recently launched the TV-series called “Westworld”. In (ultra-)short it’s about a western amusement park populated by androids. Humans can visit the park and treat the surroundings and the androids according to their pleasures and desires however bizarre they might be. The administration of the amusement park cleans up every night and resets the andrids for the next day’s visitors.
A group of androids starts showing a kind of independence which is not a result of the programming but due to the ability of remembering and reflecting on their world. They start raising the question “who am I”. The interesting thing is that the perspective chances from human to android. A point-of-view which indicates a chance in the way we, as humans, look at our own understanding of ourselves. In a short time, we will enter a reality where we might mirror our own identity to some kind of artificial intelligence and not only to other human beings.
“Blade Runner’s job is to hunt down Replicants – manufactured humans you can’t tell from the ‘real thing’”, goes the introductory to Ridley Scott’s 1982 movie, based on the SF novel by Philippe K. Dick, Do the Androids dream of Electric Sheep.
It shows the world of the enhanced humanity, but marked with strong hierarchy! The Replicants, genetically engeneered beings, look like humans but are programmed to live for 4 years and working on the dangerous plants out of the Earth – in the space colonies. Their usage on Earth is illegal, and therefore are banned to present among “normal” (biological) humans… however, the great companies still utilize them!
I believe that even this general level of the movie’s content revelas the strong division between new possible forms of humanity, based on biopolitical power, and that is shows in a dystopic manner the destructive potential that bioengeneering of humans can imply. Therefore, it apperas as a radicalization of the neoliiberal capitalism and neocolonialism.
A Human-Robot Dance duet
The film Ex Machina seems to ask important questions about what constitutes the human and, by extension, the posthuman.
Nathan Bateman’s technological advances in AI allow him to create androids Kyoko and Ava which can act as human as Bateman and his witness, programmer Caleb Smith.
Ava’s and Kyoko’s ability to take on the abilities and even appearance of human beings force Smith to question his own assumptions about machine life and what it means to be human, and his emotional tie to Ava suggests his own difficulty in parsing the human/machine divide.
The technological advancement of the human, both in Bateman/Smith and Ava Kyoko in different ways, accentuates the film’s questioning of our future possibilities. The image above, with its combination of machine and human, suggests both progress and possibility but also, through the film’s plot, an unsettling of what the human is.
Ava’s escape from the Bateman compound at the film’s end, dressed and repaired to look fully human, offers a compelling visual that blurs the line between human and machine. In addition, one might see her murder of Bateman as a “human”act — she demands her freedom from imprisonment and secures her release. But her punishment of Caleb Smith — she entraps him in the compound and abandons him to a potentially deadly end — seems “inhuman.”
So where does that leave us?
Now that we are online learners, will we then be posthuman learners, in a sense, because of our ability to access and develop information flows in widely increasing networks and spaces?
Normality and Enhancement
This famous figurine, Venus / Woman of Willendorf, made between 28000-25000 BCE, comments interestingly on posthuman notions of normality and enhancement. Does the figurine represent a normal female body representative of the period, or have certain features been exaggerated – if so for what purpose(s)? Breasts are certainly attributes that are still enhanced through surgery/padding by modern women
PHOTOSHOPPING NORMALITY: RETOUCHING IMPERFECTIONS OR REDEFINING THE NORM?
Photography is undoubtedly not an art that aims for exact copies of reality. Yet, where does the simple photoshopped correction of imperfections (as therapeutic measure) end and where does the shaping of a perfectionist posthuman norm for smooth skins, radiant colours and perfectly defined lines begin?
Consider the X-Men comics as the most iconic modern mutant story, we discuss how the idea of the X-Men came to be, how the visions of mutant kind evolved over time in the comics, and how American social politics becomes a frame for thinking about humanity’s future.
In Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s The Coming Race (1871), the other found in the history are the Vril-ya, they resemble human form but are different, somewhat superior. The Vril-ya have abilities, such as telepathy and the power of transmit information and manipulate responses.
La Planète Sauvage (Fantastic Planet, 1973) directed by René Laloux. The story is about humans living on a strange planet dominated by giants humanoids who consider them animals. The blue humanoids Draags keep the humans Oms as pets and thought the animation we see the allegory of racism and speciesism. Questions about language, rights and the capacity of thinking are in some way alike with the Coming Race.
Predict the Future of Jobs:
“Retained”. Some jobs will change very little, often because they involve ultimate responsibility for human safety. One example is the airline pilot, who, despite being in charge of a machine which can fly itself under normal circumstances, is occasionally called upon to save lives. Maybe taxi and bus drivers are in this category… what do you think?
· “Removed”. The opposite of the previous category, and the focus of much attention, there are certainly some jobs which will be no longer required, at least in the same quantities as now. One likely example, as automated calendar scheduling and chatbots develop, is the secretary. Of course, the Industrial Revolution didn’t entirely kill off job types: for instance, the desire for expensive hand-made bread still enables a niche business, but it is not a mass-employer.
· “Re-invented”. Some jobs will move much more towards a supervisory role, with changes in skill requirements and use of time. One example is the doctor, where diagnosis and surgery will become much more supported by machine learning and robotics.
· “Realised”. Every revolution in technology produces new jobs that did not exist before. My personal bet is on the “goal engineer”: a person skilled in defining unambiguous objectives which reinforcement learning systems will then optimise towards, taking account of complexity which would be unimaginable for humans. Here are some more ideas!
Brave New World
Threat of Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering and the threat it poses to the human race is another theme of the novel. The mass breeding of children in the hatchery points to the controlled population intended to stabilize the society. When John the Savage meets Mustapha Mond and asks him about producing only Alpha Plus human beings, he responds that they are creating a stable society having an equilibrium of the wise and the fool. He mentions “Cyprus Experiment” of creating only Alpha Plus on some distant land to experiment with the idea. It means genetic engineering could be a reality soon and may cause disruption in the natural processes.
Commodification means to commodify a society, or human beings are treated as commodities. Thomas is responsible for conditioning human beings in the Hatcheries and the Conditioning Center on the lines of assembly-line production of Henry Ford.
S6 Privacy & Security
Passwords and security are becoming even more important. Throwing an exclamation point on the end of your old password doesn’t cut it anymore. Maybe the future of security protection is fingerprinting, or maybe it’s skeletal scanning. Whatever it is, we are in need of an upgrade.
Do students at secondary school need a privacy guide? Develop a privacy guide.
What in ed-tech is exciting? What in ed-tech innovative? Is a “Domain of One’s Own” for every single student one of the most important and innovative initiatives in ed-tech today?
Why depend on others with more knowledge? Should we educate ourselves on how to protect ourselves?
Profiling is a process that transforms raw data into information that can be later used in a
decision process. It applies to different fields, from psychology to law enforcement to
computer science. To understand what profiling is, and to put it into context in this report,
we refer to the Oxford English Dictionary’s definition:
‘The recording and analysis of a person’s psychological and
behavioural characteristics so as to assess or predict their
capabilities in a certain sphere or to assist in identifying categories
of people.’ https://gdpr-info.eu/
Videos and podcasts
Most people don’t look at the source code of websites, but it is important that you can. How? Why?
Why is it important to learn English AND Basic HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) which is the code that is used to structure a web page and its content. For example, content could be structured within a set of paragraphs, a list of bulleted points, or using images and data tables.
Big data — capturing it, processing it, analyzing it — all of which will purportedly bring about more innovation. More innovation in education. More innovation in education at scale, even.
Much of this data explosion comes from various types of sensors — indeed, the number of Internet-connected devices in US homes today now outnumbers the number of people in the country itself. Devices like, for example, the Nest thermostat that Google just acquired.
But plenty of this data is human-generated — if not specifically as what we call “user-generated content, “ then as “data-exhaust,” that is all sorts of metadata that many of us are often quite unaware that we’re creating.
Of course, the general public probably is a bit more aware of metadata now, thanks to the revelations last summer of Edward Snowden, the former CIA analyst who disclosed the vast surveillance efforts of the National Security Agency: the collection of massive amounts of data from telephone and technology companies. “Email, videos, photos, voice-over-IP chats, file transfers, social networking details, and more” siphoned from Apple, Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Yahoo, Skype, AOL, World of Warcraft, Angry Birds and so on. Encryption undermined. Malware spread. Our social connections mapped. Warrantless spying by governments – not just on suspected terrorists, but on all of us.
As privacy researcher and activist Chris Soghoian quipped on Twitter, Google has built the greatest global surveillance system. It’s no surprise that the NSA has sought to to use it too.
Google knows a lot about us. What we search for. Who we email. And when. Where we live. Where we’re going. What we watch. What we write. What we read. What we buy.
It mines this data purportedly to offer us better products and services and, of course, to sell ads.
And again, here is where a “Domain of One’s Own” runs counter to what is a dominant trend in technology today — particularly a growing trend in education whereby all this data and all this metadata will be used to “personalize education.”
A “Domain of One’s Own” asks us to consider the infrastructure. It asks us to understand the Web and our place on it. It asks to us to pay attention to the content we create — as teachers and as students — and to weigh where it best resides — who has access to it, and for how long.
It prompts us to ask “what data are we creating” as learners and “who owns it.” Who tracks us. Who profits.
As our worlds become increasingly mediated by computing machines, we’re encouraged to hand over more details of our lives, more data to Google (and to other technology companies, of course.)
Most of us think little about this. We shrug. We agree to the Terms of Service without reading them, often meaning we’ve agreed to hand over our data, to give up control over what’s done with it. We acquiesce more and more of our privacy. In doing so, we’re assured, technology will give us access to better stuff, to more “innovation.”
A “Domain of One’s Own” builds literacies so that the technology of the Web is distinguishable from magic, so those who understand how to manipulate its symbols are not high priests or magicians, so that carving out and operating your own little piece on the Web is manageable. From there perhaps teachers and students will feel empowered to explore more of technology’s terrain, so they feel empowered, even, to resist its “Googlization.”
Nor do I want us to move away from a world of wonder to a world of technocracy, to simply reduce what we do and what we make to terms like “user generated content” or “personal data” or “code.” How cold and empty these sound. Love letters reduced to a status update, love songs, their associated metadata. Human communication as a transaction, not an expression.
“A Domain of One’s Own” is so important and so innovative — learn to seize these tools and build something for ourselves.
The Domain of One’s Own initiative prompts us to not just own our own domain — our own space on the Web – but to consider how we might need to reclaim bits and pieces that have already been extracted from us.
It prompts us think critically about what our digital identity looks like, who controls it, who owns our data, who tracks it, who’s making money from it. It equips us to ask questions — technical questions and philosophical questions and economic questions and political questions about and for ourselves, our communities, our practices — knowing that we have a stake as actors and not just as objects of technology, as actors and not just objects of education technology.
Literary Source of Big Brother is Watching You
George Orwell has employed this phrase in the third paragraph of the first part of his political satire, “1984.” It goes thus:
“The flat was seven flights up, and Winston, who was thirty-nine and had a varicose ulcer above his right ankle, went slowly, resting several times on the way. On each landing, opposite the lift-shaft, the poster with the enormous face gazed from the wall. It was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you about when you move. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption beneath it ran.”
(Part One, Chapter One, Lines 11-12)
Big Brother is a representative of a dictatorial government, and its supremacy in the society. It can exercise total control and manage citizen’s lives by watching with spy cameras and advanced technology.
Loss of Identity and Independence
Totalitarian governments often adopt strategies that make people lose identities and independence so that the citizen will not question the supremacy of the governing class. Thus, proving that totalitarianism, which is one of its major themes in the novel has ripped people of their own personality. The uniformity in food, clothes and what the people hear and absorb in 1984 shows that the Party and its supposed head, Big Brother, are engaged in erasing the individualities and identities. Winston Smith’s feeling of criminality in writing his dairy is a dangerous act. The final torture scene when O’Brien confronts Winston to erase his integrity and his significant resistance brings out response from O’Brien. He explains Winston Smith that he is the last man on earth if he is harboring rebellious thoughts. This is an example of how individuality and identity are not tolerated in totalitarian regimes.
Use of Technology
Orwell has shown another theme that is the use of technology for governing the people. In this novel, the writer shows that the party uses telescreens and some other apparatuses as one of the primary tools control the public. The use of technology to monitor people is very much present in this century as George Orwell had predicted through 1984.
The growing popularity of FaceApp — a photo filter app that delights smartphone users with its ability to transform the features of any face, like tacking on years of wrinkles — has prompted Democratic Sen. Chuck Schumer to call for a federal investigation into the Russia-based company over what he says are potential national security and privacy risks to millions of Americans.
“It would be deeply troubling if the sensitive personal information of U.S. citizens was provided to a hostile foreign power actively engaged in cyber hostilities against the United States,” Schumer said in a letter to the FBI and the Federal Trade Commission.
All team members start by reading this information:
In a world that is increasingly more connected, you as a digital citizens actively or passively accept to transmit information, part of which is ‘personal data’.
This information is often collected and elaborated by third parties to infer further knowledge about users.
The act of gathering the data is commonly called ‘tracking’ and can be performed through several means.
The act of analysing and processing those data and relating them to the individual is called
The aim of this Scrum is to help you as a digital citizen to protect and to manage your privacy during online activities.
The aim of this scrum is to be an instrument of support for you to
help you protect and to manage their privacy during online activities.
This scrum is dedicated to the description of two legitimate use cases to track and profile users online, namely target advertising and personalisation of the user experience.
Also, it identifies and analyses the set of techniques currently used by online digital providers to track citizens and profile them based on their online behaviour.
It deals with some of the available tools that could be helpful to protect privacy while browsing online.
It aims to raise awareness among users and provide some guidelines to address specific issues related to privacy.
It is about general data protection regulation (GDPR).
Content of the reading and listening-viewing tasks:
- typical use cases for user tracking and profiling and possible technical means to track users online;
- tools that we have identified to be helpful to the data subject to protect their privacy while browsing online;
- user awareness and education: the taxonomy of the privacy-related harms described by Solove (Solove, 2006);
- the possible legal means offered by the GDPR;
- the possible technical means and the digital competences involved both in the prevention and in the resolution of each privacy harm.
We want you to present a final product which highlights the importance of raising awareness among digital users such as your classmates / peers and empowering them through educational, technical and legal tools, including the general data protection regulation (GDPR), to overcome possible privacy issues.
In this Scrum you will be working on: Digital Competence 4. SAFETY (see full list below)
4.1 Protecting devices: To protect devices and data, to understand risks and threats in digital environments, to know about safety and security measures and to have due regard to reliability and privacy.
4.2 Protecting personal data and privacy
personal data is used.
Pizzirani A., Di Gioia R., Chaudron S.,
Draper Gil G., Sanchez I.
© European Union, 2018
S7 Social Credit System
Will our future be based on the idea of enhanced individuality or on an enhanced social system?
How about L-score? A teacher in The Netherlands designed a credit score system with personal learning data being collected by constant surveillance of students learning behavior. Both at school, at home, and when socializing, all behavior is being monitored and when students are not actively studying, this is being reported back on to teachers. This L-score determines your access to your future education and profession. Aim is to give credit where credit is due: to digilent and trustworthy students who work hard. L-score will scan students’ electronic communications, track their movements, uses doorbell cameras that watch the streets, facial recognition, programs to track students at all times, cameras that capture students at the mall or anywhere else and apps that are surreptitiously recording their every location.
Main question is; when Instagram is used to show an enhanced version of your life, does it not put a pressure on you that makes your real life, the normal, just the opposite?
Don’t imperfections make you unique? The direction towards uniformity is arguably a dystopian development as seen in the novels of Huxley and Orwell. How about the artwork Emoter (2000) by the artist Tim Hawkinson. Using the image of his own face, Tim developed a motion expression work that recreates lines and emotions in his face.
In this still from the movie The Name of the Rose Sean Connery holds up to his eyes a couple of seriously old-fashioned spectacles. The movie, which is an adaption of Umberto Eco’s novel Il nome della rosa from 1980, is set in the Middle Ages and spectacles were at that time very advanced technology; so advanced that some believed them to be the work of the devil. Of course everything out of the ordinary was in the Middle Ages perceived as something devilish, but this is interesting because spectacles or glasses are such common things today. It is an example of the truly enhancing that has gone from being very foreign to us to being as normal as clothes.
Also see the case of Nastya Shpagina (pictured), whose eyes emulate drawn anime eyes and whose face emulates a plastic mask, parts of the face become simulated eyes, and the face becomes a signifier of a face.
The picture is taken from the AXE commercial “Find Your Magic”
Foucault said: ““I don’t believe in the virtue of using language for “self-expression”. The language that interests me is the one that can actually destroy all the circular, enclosed, narcissistic forms of the subject and of oneself. And what I mean by ‘the end of man’ is, deep down, the end of all these forms of individuality, of subjectivity, of consciousness, of the ego, on which we have built and from which we have tried to build and to constitute knowledge. …The West has tried to build the figure of man in this way, and this image is in the process of disappearing. [..] We are used to thinking that the expression of individuality, for example, or the exaltation of individuality is one of the forms of man’s liberation… But I wonder if the opposite is true.”
- Is Chinese-style surveillance coming to the west? The tyranny of algorithms is part of our lives: soon they could rate everything we do.
- Siri, where is my democracy?
S8 Hybrid Education + New Learning
Was our 20th century educational system a project of mass education?
Will education technology change that or will it make this project of mass education stronger by the use of standardized, automated learning processes?
Do we need an applied wisdom curriculum now that we are moving from the classroom as echoroom to the classroom as distortion room?
The echo room Since the foundation of the educational system the interaction between students and teachers has taken place within a closed classroom fenced by four walls. The teacher was placed in front of the students observing and monitoring them, trying to discipline them. The teacher’s point of view was protected by the walls against other observer’s potentially differing meanings about his ways of seeing things (Luhmann 2006, 71). Also the walls protected against distraction from the outside world, like interference from people joining or leaving and made it possible for the educational interaction to decide its own theme, when to begin, change, or drop a theme (ibid., 131). This closed classroom system was structured around the principle of one teacher, one book, one subject, one curriculum, one class (based on students around the same age) – and all the communication within the school-class made up a self-referential structure from lesson to lesson, only allowing students and their teacher to participate. The students could think about their relations outside the class, but had no access to them and in this way the teacher became not only the one supplied with the power as the educational leader, but also the one who decided what was the truth about anything. Its has been argued that a lot of communication on the Internet takes the form of closed echo rooms, in which people with the same knowledge and the same values repeat and confirm each other. Yet we would argue that the old classroom before the Internet where nothing else than such an echo room. Basically all interaction in the old school classroom took the form of sequences of echoes. At the beginning of each new sequence in the classroom something was pointed out by the teacher to be the content to be learned (call this X) – and all the following activities – textbook reading, homework, dialogue, instruction, writing on the blackboard, writing notes, group works, presentations, exercises and repetitions – aimed at making the students able to produce an echo of this X to the final exam, marking the end of the sequence. Thus our argument is that the echo room has been the main institutional form of the educational interaction called classroom teaching for the last two or tree 6 last centuries. The foundational infrastructure of this form has been the four walls, the blackboard, the teachers’ authority and mass media especially the printed book.
Hybridization of the classroom
The digital media and wireless networks open up the classroom so the physical walls do not any longer isolate interactions within the classroom. The classroom now works like a boat sailing the sea of the Internet, or an atomiser spreading and gathering the educational interaction and the attention of its members – if, and only if, the students and teachers tries to actualize the new possibilities. We think that there are two good reasons for doing that. The first one is that teaching can be improved and the second is that the teaching, at the same time let the students learn to behave and navigate in the new media environment, picking digital literacy up (a form of Bildung adequate to the new medium environment).
The hybrid student
With equipment like tablets, smartphones and laptops the students now have become cyborgs – hybrids of human and machine. They can when ever they want excess all information, resources,
networks, groups, personal relations, libraries, mass media etc. accessible through the Internet. The student can ask his brother or mother, or other from her network that is specialists in the actual topic of the educational interaction in the class, or search the web, or ask on Twitter or in a Facebook-group. Before the student had to wait until after school and then for instance go to the library, or ask her mother for supplying or contradictory knowledge in comparison to what the teacher said. Also the students can have parallel interactions about the educational interaction either about the educational topic, the teacher or about anything else. Such dialogs can also be peer to peer, or in small groups with no transparency for other of the class members or the teacher. We call these interactions for network interactions, while the interactions that are transparent for the whole class and restricted to the class we call for community interactions.
Students can use their new possibilities for non-educational proposes. Of course a cyborg-student will always attend to topics and relations considered as important, but we have observed students who almost do not participate in the educational activities, because they are playing computer games, or are chatting on Facebook. This can be seen as a lack of norms suited for the new hybridized situation and/or a lack of self-reflexivity (see Tække & Paulsen 2013a, b, c).
The hybrid teacher
The teacher now also has become a cyborg – a hybrid of human and machine. It is the teacher who really has the big responsibility when it comes to grapping the new possibilities for improving the teaching, making it adequate with the new medium environment. On the one hand the teacher must lead the students helping them, showing them how to use and not use the new media in meaningful ways. On the other hand the teacher must find himself a new attitude as a teacher, new technics of teaching and a new form of authority. Now the teacher can monitor the work of the students in new ways while some of the old ways has disappeared. The teacher cannot see all of what the students are doing, what they communicate about him, but now he has access to much more of the work and social interactions from the class. The teacher must find a new attitude and authority now where it is possible in real time to get information from the best sources and experts in the world. There is a new and very important role for the teacher in helping the students to search information, doing source critics, handling different kind of software, and data base systems, behaving in different social situations, using different genres while being on the web and inviting people from the outside into the educational interaction. This means that the teacher must leave the old power situation, which we saw in relation to teaching in the echo room. In short: the teacher must find a new identity as a cyborg.
The art is not to monitor the students like in the echo room forcing them to learn X imitating the teacher, but to facilitate, stimulate, orchestrate, organize and lead educational interaction so the students are empowered and have the best possibilities for learning by themselves.
X and the new medium environment
If we take the learning networks we have an interesting finding where the distinction between cheating and learning and/or plagiarism and a kind of imitation/learning/cooperation. The case is that students who actually are working together, trying to help each other and therefor have identical, or almost identical parts of their assignments has been accused for cheating by the teachers! At the same time the students in the cheating networks are so trained in doing plagiarism, that they know how to write assignments over so no sentences are identifiable in a computer search, so they are not revealed. This tells us that the hybridization of the classroom and the educational interaction pushes the borders and our understanding of what it actually is to learn. Was the ‘learning’ in the echo room, writing X down in the notebook looking at X on the blackboard, not a form of plagiarism? When is the students’ work with other student’s assignments learning and when is it not learning? Is the concept of plagiarism only used for legal reasons and not in relation to learning? Is it possible to learn anything when you get help? Do we learn more or less when doing plagiarism rewriting other students’ assignments? And last but not least: What kind of learning, work habits, methods etc. do we need in the new media environment?
The room of dissonance
Finally we would suggest, that leaving the old echo room implies entering a new room. What are the main features and social coordinates of this room? It is a room not closed by four walls or a school clock. It is as room that not only students and teachers can enter. And it is a room in which several themes can be communicated about simultaneously. It is therefore a room in which dissent rather than consent is most likely to be produced. More voices become accessible. Not only do teachers and students become cyborgs, the same goes for everybody else, making everybody else able – in principle and often also an actuality – to observe or even participate in the 14 communication of the new class room. The value and possibility of producing a unison echo decrease, while the value and possibility of transforming and expanding communication and knowledge increase. It becomes possible for the new cyborg teacher to participate both in the community of the class and facilitate and initiate supporting learning networks for the students.
Hybrids – Observed with Social Systems Theory. International University Centre (IUC), Dubrovnik, Croatia: May the 15th – 18th, 2014. Jesper Tække Associate Professor, PhD Centre for Internet Research, Aarhus University, Denmark : www.jespertaekke.dk firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @taekke Michael Paulsen Associate Professor, PhD Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University, Denmark www.michaelpaulsen.dk email@example.com Twitter: @forskerMP
S10 Biting into Blockchain
How does Blockchain work?
Is Blockchain the answer to securing our future?
Blockchain is undisputedly an ingenious invention. It’s a technology that began as underpinning for virtual currencies but it is quickly becoming obvious that blockchain is more than just bitcoin.
The encrypted ledger technology that powers bitcoin is primed to reshape the future of many industries. Be it healthcare, finance, media, or the government, the blockchain technology will transform everything.
The technology is sure to disrupt every industry, including education. There is no denying the fact that the education system is far from where it needs to be. Using this technology, a lot of improvements can be made in the education sector.
The edtech sector is huge. It is estimated that it will reach $93.76 billion by 2020. Technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality are already making their way into the education sector. It’s only a matter of time before the blockchain technology becomes mainstream too.
Let’s see how this disruptive technology can revolutionize the education sector.
In 2017, MIT issued virtual diplomas to its graduates. Students received them on their smartphones. It was different from a regular paper diploma in a number of ways. Unlike a paper diploma, blockchain diploma will never get lost. It can never be falsified either.
No matter where you go, your certificates will stay with you forever. The need of having traditional clearinghouse or the university as the intermediary to issue the transcripts can also be eliminated using digitized blockchain diplomas.
Now, if students begin to store all their certificates and badges on the blockchain, moving between the universities would become much easier. Barriers like transferring credits will not come in the way of their educational journey. Blockchain is very secure. Once the data has been added, it is almost impossible to alter it. Therefore, all your certificates are safe and secure. And you can access it with the tap of a button.
Making Education Affordable
According to Forbes, the US student debt is $1.52 trillion and 44 million borrowers owe this debt. The student loan debt crisis has become very serious and they are wreaking havoc on the budget years after the graduation. All thanks to high education cost. The mighty blockchain is a savior. The technology can help in making education affordable for all.
In fact, there were 81 education-blockchain ICOs started in 2017 to solve the problem but they disappeared into thin air. Dr. Edward from EIU.AC says that blockchain has industry-changing applications and that the LOL Token can solve real problems like transferability and affordability.
Blockchain is cost effective and scalable. The records are highly secure as they are decentralized. The inherent flexibility in its architecture allows support and storage of records, documents, and digital assets without any additional costs of infrastructure and security.
Institutions also save money on the cost of data management and the legal liabilities that come with it. The technology also allows participants to have individual ownership of shared data from open source, thus saving big on digital system cost.
Massive Open Online Courses have been on the rise. There are 101 million registered users for Massive Open Online Courses and 500 MOOC-based credentials as of 2018. MOOC provider Udacity has 50,000 paying users while Coursera witnessed a 70% increase in paying customers in 2017.
This is enough proof that MOOCs offer great value to the users that they are actually willing to pay for these courses. Blockchain technology could also help and offer a greater level of legitimacy to the MOOC services simply by facilitating the transactions for smaller payments for these courses.
With the rising education cost, it becomes necessary to look up for cheaper alternatives. The high cost of education is one of the reasons the concept of Open Source University (OSU) became popular. OSUs allows you to store all your educational credentials, adding an air of legitimacy to more affordable and alternate means of education that still carry weight with employers.
Also, OSUs have their own courses and students can choose the one they like. Plus, they are very affordable. By storing certificates and credentials earned through OSUs, on a unified Blockchain database, credentials will be easily verifiable and accessible. Thus, it eliminates the chances of fraud in the diploma marketplace.
Colleges spend a hefty amount to impart training to the students, but maintaining the record of their achievements is a tough task since the records are to be kept and maintained for a lifetime.
Current technologies used for talent management are vulnerable to cyber attacks and are not very safe. Blockchain provides an open and secure system for talent management. Students will have access to it even after they have graduated and joined workforces.
Blockchain can also be used for executing agreement once a set of instructions or conditions have been met. Smart contracts can reduce paperwork in the education sector. For example, it could be used to validate attendance or assignment completions once a set of conditions have been met. There are many other ways by which smart contracts can help in transforming education.
The distributed ledger technology promises to overhaul the educational experience. Blockchain is still in its early days and the technology has a long way to go. It would be interesting to see what this technology has in store for the education sector.
S11 Perfect Destruction
How did war become a game?
What if annihilation is not the end of humanity, but yet another chapter in the history of mankind?
What does game theory teach us about war?
How can individuals prevent any form of Cyberwarfare?
United States Declaration of Independence says these 3 “unalienable rights” have been given to all humans by their creator, and which governments are created to protect.
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
The Coming Race, by Edward Bulwer-Lytton: quotation below is stitched together by segments from page 55 and 56.
“… war between the Vril-discoverers ceased, for they brought the art of destruction to such perfection… If army met army, and both had command of this agency, it could be but to the annihilation of each.”
A disastrously non-fictional perfection of destruction—through which the mere threat of armed conflict would keep the world on its toes (or ducking and covering in bomb shelters, rather)—was, one could argue, realized with the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.
The following Cold War stands testimony to the power of technology and weapons of mass destruction to change utterly and completely the lives of people on a truly global scale.
Interestingly, Edward Bulwer-Lytton describes in his book a scenario where this destructive perfection simply ushers in an era of non-conflict. Not only that, “Man was so completely at the mercy of man,” he continues, “… that all notions of government by force gradually vanished from political systems and forms of law”.
Will technological advancements lead to the perfection of destruction or to the opposite: an era of non-conflict in an equilibrium of power?
The book “1984” by George Orwell serves as a great example of the dehumanization inherent in human nature – the tendency to think in terms of “us” and “them” and particularly how a powerful elite, who control information, can use this feature to control large populations.
Such a question is posed in the Fallout series, which consists of post-apocalyptic video games set in the 22nd or 23rd century. Rather than following recent history, the setting is based on an deviating timeline after WWII. Years of conflict between the United States and China has resulted in a global nuclear war which has turned the world into a wasteland.
With all societal structures gone, survivors engage in an ongoing war for survival and dominance in the wasteland. But the wasteland is not only inhabited by humans: Raging ghouls, irradiated animals and even super mutants – genetically modified humans – are among the obstacles the player must constantly overcome in his adventures.
The last remaining examples of civilized societies are in the underground vaults. Provided by the Vault-Tec company before the nuclear war, the shelters were promoted as safe havens, but were actually elaborate lab-environments for carrying out inhumane experiments on the residents.
Everything is the result of the late civilization where the divided humanity had neglected one another for far too long. But in the wasteland, the power balance has shifted. Now, everyone is vowing to take back what was rightfully theirs.
by Simon Sinek
Are designer babies and eternal youth only for the privileged?
Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin?
Orphan Black is a series that deals with and explores the ethics and morality of human cloning. This is done through the same, but different, clones that are introduced throughout the series. These clones are fully developed individuals, but they are also patented technological inventions. Throughout the series they are often seen by ‘the villains’ as godless freak, monstrosities that must be eradicated or they are exploited for their scientific value in an experiment where the end justifies the means. This solidifies their status as Other thus indicating the issue of xenophobia, which is exactly a challenge to human unity.
The extended mind
ANDY CLARK & DAVID CHALMERS’
Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin?
The question invites two standard replies.
Some accept the boundaries of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind.
Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words ‘just ain’t in the
head’, and hold that this externalism about meaning carries over into an externalism about mind. We propose to pursue a third position: an active externalism, based on the active role of the environment in driving cognitive processes in your mind.
2. Extended cognition
Consider three cases of human problem-solving:
(1) A person sits in front of a computer screen which displays images of various two-dimensional geometric shapes and is asked to answer questions concerning the potential fit of such shapes into depicted ‘sockets’. To assess fit, the person must mentally rotate the shapes to align them with the sockets.
(2) A person sits in front of a similar computer screen, but this time can choose either to physically rotate the image on the screen, by pressing a rotate button, or to mentally rotate the image as before. We can also suppose, not unrealistically, that some speed advantage accrues to the physical rotation operation.
(3) Sometime in the cyberpunk future, a person sits in front of a similar computer screen. This agent, however, has the benefit of a neural implant which can perform the rotation operation as fast as the computer in the previous example. The agent must still choose which internal resource to use (the implant or the good old-fashioned mental rotation), as each resource makes different demands on attention and other concurrent brain activity. How much cognition is present in these cases?
1 Authors are listed in order of degree of belief in the central thesis ANALYSIS 58.1, January 1998, pp. 7-19. ? Andy Clark and David Chalmers This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Sat, 5 Apr 2014 05:33:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 8 ANDY CLARK & DAVID CHALMERS
Pagina-eindeS 13 Copyright, Fair Policy & Ethical Behaviour
How can you protect your own Copyright on the Internet?
What kind of a company is IGI Global?
Describe in 5 sentences.
Why do they call themselves Disseminators of Knowledge? What does that mean?
What can we learn from how IGI Global handles information? Should all companies do that?
What attitude should future citizens take when being ‘disseminator of knowledge’?
Can you create a MUST-DO List for your classmates?
IGI Global is a publishing company.
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